Description
Oblique photograph taken during an aerial reconnaissance of the Qatar Peninsula on 11 October 1935 by Squadron Leader J H Dand, Air Headquarters, British Forces in Iraq, Hinaidi. A copy of a report of the reconnaissance can be found at IOR/L/PS/12/2136, ff 38-39.Inscribed: 800 feet.Another print of this photograph can be found at IOR/R/15/2/159, f 26.
Description
The correspondence in the volume is primarily concerned with the ongoing negotiations between the Kuwait Oil Company (led by Frank Holmes and Archibald Chisholm) and the Shaikh of Kuwait, Shaikh Aḥmad al-Jābir Āl Ṣabāḥ, which were suspended in June 1934 following disagreements between the parties over certain financial remunerations and the question of the appointment of a Chief Local Representative in Kuwait, before being resumed in September 1934 and concluded in December 1934 with the signing of the concession agreement. Copies of the final draft concession agreement can be found at folios 82-97 and 247-283. Other correspondents in these negotiations are the Political Agent at Kuwait (Harold Dickson, with Ralph Ponsonby Watts acting) and the Political Resident in the Persian Gulf (Trenchard Craven Fowle, with Percy Gordon Loch acting).Also included in the file is correspondence relating to a company called Traders Limited who submitted a draft oil concession agreement to the Shaikh of Kuwait in September 1934, potentially breaching the agreement made by the Shaikh with the Kuwait Oil Company not to consider any other oil concession application during the period June to September 1934.The question of the oil concession for the Kuwait-Nejd neutral zone is also discussed, with corespondence between the Foreign Office, HM Minister in Jedda (Sir Andrew Ryan), the Secretaries of State for India and Foreign Affairs, representatives of the Arabian Development Syndicate, and the Deputy Saudi Minister for Foreign Affairs (Fuad Bey Hamza). The correspondence focuses on attempts to understand how the Saudi Arabian Government is handling their share of the concession, and how this might affect Kuwait.The volume also includes confidential records of meetings held at the Foreign Office with Fuad Bey Hamza (Foreign Minister for Saudi Arabia) in which the possibility of dividing the neutral zone are discussed. The Political Agent, Harold Dickson is consulted about these proposals and provides background information on the establishment of the neutral zone, the potential detrimental effects that disbanding it could have on the nomadic tribes living in the zone, and observations on the possible oil locations which would be most likely end up in the Saudi Arabian half under any division of the zone and the detrimental effect that might have on Kuwait.Other correspondence in the file includes discussions between the Secretary of State for India, Gilbert Laithwaite (India Office), Wilfred Ashton McClaughry (Air Ministry) and Charles Stuart Burnett (Air Vice-Marshall in Iraq) regarding the possible future need for a site at Shuwaikh as an airbase, and an agreement with the Shaikh of Kuwait for mooring buoys to be placed in Shuwaikh Harbour.
Description
The correspondence in the volume relates primarily to the cessation of the operations of the Kuwait Oil Company during World War Two, and their plans for post-war development once peace is declared. These plans included the development of tanker anchorages, pipe-lines for both oil and water, the construction of a refinery, and the development of the production of oil from the Burgan Oil Field. Also considered in the correspondence are the potential local repercussions, both positive and negative that such rapid development might have in Kuwait (also given as Koweit), some of the correspondence between the Company and the Shaikh is given in both English and Arabic. Also discussed is work undertaken by the Kuwait Oil Company for the British Army from 1942-1943 to provide Bitumen, and the Company's desire to use the leftover Bitumen to asphalt roads in Kuwait. Correspondence relating to the services provided by the Kuwait Landing Company, who are responsible for the loading and unloading of all cargo in Kuwait, is also included and discussion centres around the rights of the Kuwait Oil Company to unload their own cargo and their need of special steel barges to do so, which they acquire from Gray, Mackenzie and Company.Also recorded are visits made by representatives of both the Kuwait Oil Company, and its parent companies the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and the Gulf Oil Company to Kuwait which were made to discuss operational matters, attempt to secure further concessions from the Shaikh, and to settle disputes amongst the staff there. Visits were also made by Major Frank Holmes, the London Representative of the Shaikh of Kuwait to the Kuwait Oil Company, and his Indian Interpreter, Ashraf Ali Shamsuddin.Other matters discussed include the Kuwait Oil Company's proposal to acquire a concession from the Shaikh of Kuwait (Shaikh Aḥmad al-Jābir Āl Ṣabāḥ) for an area outside Kuwait territorial waters, and the US Government's proclamation in 1946 which extended their jurisdiction to the subsoil adjacent to the American Coast on the Continental Shelf. Included in the volume are the minutes of a meeting held 16 January 1946 to discuss what the British Government's response to the proclamation should be. The outcomes of the meeting were to make a public statement supporting the American Government's proclamation and to commence an investigation into how the proclamation could be applied by the British Government, focusing particularly on the case of the Persian Gulf where the Continental Shelf was so shallow any rights would have to be shared by all adjacent states on an equitable basis, taking into account ownership of pearl fisheries too.Other matters of note within the volume are:Rumours that the American Oil Companies intend to construct a pipeline from the Mediterranean to Kuwait as part of their ongoing development of oil production in Saudi Arabia;The reactions against the proposal in the United States and conversations between the US and British Goverments over future worldwide oil expansion, focusing particularly on the Middle East and considering questions such as the quantities of oil to be produced, the challenges of transporting it, and matters such as concession rights and marketing policies;Ibn Saud's alleged attempts to influence the Shaikh of Kuwait in his choice of recipient of his share of the Neutral Zone Concession, specifically nominating the California-Arabian Standard Oil Company.A memorandum written by W S Gregor, General Manager for BAPCO at Busreh [Basra], regarding complaints about the handling of cargo in Bahrain and the Bahrain Petroleum Company (BAPCO)'s desire to make their own lighterage arrangements. The complaints related to the lack of experienced staff and supervisors at delivery points which was resulting in stowing, smuggling and pilfering.The correspondence in the file is primarily between the Political Resident in the Persian Gulf, the Political Agent at Kuwait, the Secretary of State for India, the Shaikh of Kuwait, the India Office, the Ministry of Fuel and Power, the Kuwait Oil Company and Major Frank Holmes.
Description
The volume comprises correspondence between the Political Resident in the Persian Gulf , the Political Agent at Muscat, the Political Agent at Bahrain, the India Office (Roland Tennyson Peel, John Percival Gibson, Francis Anthony Kitchener Harrison) , the Secretary to the Government of India (Sir Aubrey Metcalfe), the Sultan of Muscat and Oman (Sayyid Sa‘īd bin Taymūr Āl Bū Sa‘īd) and Petroleum Development (Oman and Dhofar) Limited (Ernest Vincent Packer, John Skliros, H H Wheatley) regarding the oil concession agreements concluded with the Sultan of Muscat for Dhofar [Zufār] and Muscat territory. Copies of the two concessions can be found at folios 17-47.Included in the volume is correspondence relating to the political agreement between His Majesty’s Government and Petroleum Development (Oman and Dhofar) Limited including its presentation to the Sultan of Muscat; the Sultan’s concerns about the document and negotiation with the India Office in order to agree a suitably amended version that satisfied all parties, including the decision by the India Office to have a separate pre-emption agreement. Copies of the Political Agreement and Pre-Emption Clause agreement can be found at folios 93-98 and 132-135.Also discussed is the decision by Petroleum Development (Oman and Dhofar) Limited to take up in 1942 the option of an extension on their exploration agreement for two years owing to wartime conditions and further discussion regarding possible methods of extending the exploration agreement to the end of the war and a period beyond. The conclusion of the discussion being the decision by the Company to take up their concession rather than attempt to negotiate any further extension. Also discussed are concerns by the Sultan of Muscat that the Company did not really intend to explore and develop a concession in his territory and were only really interested in preventing other companies operating there. The concession with the Shaikh of Ajman [‘Ajmān] (Rāshid Bin Ḥumaid Al-Nu`aimī) is also discussed in this context as the exploration of that territory had also not commenced on the outbreak of World War II and extensions to the exploration agreement were therefore also required.Further correspondence relates to the Oil Undertaking made in 1923 by Sultan Taimur bin Faisal [Sayyid Taymūr bin Fayṣal bin Turkī Āl Bū Sa‘īd], formerly Sultan of Muscat and father of Sayyid Said bin Taimur. The correspondence centres around the assertion made by Sultan Said bin Taimur that the undertaking was not binding on him as his father had written a letter to the political authorities in 1923 stating that any such undertaking would not be binding on his successors unless specifically stated in the contractual agreement. Further correspondence concludes that the letter written by Sayyid Taimur bin Faisal in 1923 was received by the Political Resident in the Persian Gulf but was never responded to by him or forwarded on to the India Office or Government of India and that they were therefore unaware of any such opinion or response and that as a result were prepared to consider a re-negotiation of the Sultan’s treaties and undertakings.Also of interest within the volume are:discussions about the Muscat Arms Subsidy which was originally granted to Sayyid Faisal bin Turki [Fayṣal bin Turkī Āl Bū Sa‘īd] including the conditions under which it was granted and the lack of clarity in the terms and conditions of the subsidy’s contract;discussions regarding the Oman hinterland which the Company were interested in exploring but which was under the authority of the Imam of Muscat and the decision to wait until the following year to raise the question again as the Imam’s authority in that area was considered to be dwindling and the Sultan hoped then to be able to make arrangements with either the Imam of the tribes living there;a memorandum prepared in the Petroleum Department, June 1938, looking at areas where petroleum concessions were mostly likely to be, or had been already been obtained, on the Arabian Peninsula (Koweit [Kuwait], Koweit Neutral Zone, Bahrein [Bahrain], Qatar, Trucial Sheikhdom’s, Aden Protectorate, Saudi Arabia, The Yemen, Muscat, and Oman) and looking at Petroleum Concessions Limited's refinery agreement and pre-emption clause.The agreements and correspondence with the Sultan of Muscat are in Arabic and English.A series of file notes which were maintained as a record of the correspondence in the volume can be found at folios 264-276.
Description
The file comprises correspondence between the Political Resident in the Persian Gulf (Trenchard Craven Fowle), the Political Agent at Bahrain (Hugh Weightman), the Political Agent at Muscat (Ralph Ponsonby Watts) and Petroleum Concessions Limited (Stephen Hemsley Longrigg) regarding arrangements for geologists from Petroleum Concessions Limited to undertake geological exploration at Jebel Faiyah [Jabal al Fāyah], Baraimi [Al Buraymī] and Jebel Hafit [Jabal Ḩafīt].Possible routes of entry to the Baraimi Oasis through Sharjah, Muscat and Abu Dhabi are discussed along with the proposal to use two exploration parties which could meet up at the Oasis. One exploration party was sent from Muscat to Jebel Hafit and Baraimi with the assistance of the Sultan of Muscat (Sayyid Sa‘īd bin Taymūr Āl Bū Sa‘īd) and escorted by the Wali of Sohar (Mudhaffar Suliman). The other, escorted by a political officer John Baron Howes, hoped to travel through Beni Kitab [Beni Qitab] territory and visit Jebel Faiyah before going on to Baraimi, but ultimately had to travel there directly from Abu Dhabi with the assistance of the Wali of Al Ain (Ibrāhīm bin ʻUthmān).The remainder of the volume discusses the various intrigues and difficulties encountered by the exploration parties in attempting to negotiate with the principal tribes at the Baraimi Oasis in order to gain access to their territory for exploration. The tribes involved include the Na’im [Na‘īm] (Shaikh Saqr bin Sulṭān), Al Bu Shamis [Āl Bū Shāmis] (Shaikh Muḥammad bin Raḥmāh bin Salmin), Beni Ka’ab [Banū Ka‘ab] and Abu Dhabi.Contained within the volume are detailed letters and reports submitted by John Baron Howes, Assistant Political Agent at Bahrain, who had accompanied one of the exploration parties to Baraimi. The correspondence details the various negotiations to enable the parties to travel, incidents on route and day by day accounts of the exploration party’s work and their interactions with the various tribes there. Folios 131-141 comprise Howe’s official report of his special duty in connection with the PCL exploration party and includes two sketch maps, one of the geographical layout of the Baraimi Oasis and the other of the distribution of the various tribes around the Oasis. A detailed appendix lists every tribe residing at the Oasis and includes details of their leaders, strength of arms, where their main settlement was, and whether they were Ghafiri or Hinawari [Hinawi].Also discussed are the lack of attempts made by the Shaikh of Sharjah to permit the geologists to visit Jebel Faiyah and subsequent attempts by Shaikh Khalid [Shaikh Khalid bin Aḥmad bin Sulṭān Āl Qasimī], Regent of Kalba to negotiate with Shaikh Muhammad bin Ali [Muḥammad bin ‘Īsá], Chief of the Beni Kitab to arrange for the PCL geologists to travel there. The negotiations were unsuccessful owing to the intrigues of various individuals on the Trucial coast, which the British believed to be orchestrated by the Shaikh of Sharjah (Shaikh Sulṭān bin Saqr Āl Qasimī).Other matters discussed in the volume include:PCL’s wish to establish an aerodrome at Baraimi, and their subsequent decision to establish it nearer to the coast owing to the difficulties encountered at Baraimi and the likely cost of acquiring permission from the Shaikh of Abu Dhabi (Shaikh Shakhbūt bin Sulṭān bin Zāyid Āl Nahyān);memorandum and reports from the Residency Agent at Sharjah (‘Abd al Razzaq) on visits made by Shaikh Saqr bin Sultan, Ruler of Baraimi and Shaikh Mohammed bin Rahmah, Chief of the Al Bu Shamis to the Trucial coast and of the various intrigues occurring on the Trucial coast in relation to the work of the geological exploration parties at Baraimi;the intention of the PCL geologists on their return to Muscat to travel to Ras-al-Hadd [Ra’s al Ḩadd] and undertake an aerial survey of the coastal area south of Ras-al-Hadd.
Description
The file comprises correspondence between the Political Resident in the Persian Gulf (Trenchard Craven Fowle, Charles Geoffrey Prior), the Political Agent at Bahrain (Hugh Weightman), the Political Agent at Muscat (Ralph Ponsonby Watts, Tom Hickinbotham), the India Office (John Percival Gibson, Roland Tennyson Peel) and Petroleum Concessions Limited, later Petroleum Development (Trucial Coast) Limited (Basil Henry Lermitte, Stephen Hemsley Longrigg, Thomas Fulton Williamson) regarding geological exploration of the Trucial Coast and Muscat, and its subsequent postponement owing to World War Two.The correspondence discusses initial plans for the exploration of the Trucial coast and Muscat during the winter of 1939 – 1940 and the intention that the Sultan of Muscat (Sayyid Sa‘īd bin Taymūr Āl Bū Sa‘īd ) would provide access to areas under the control of the Naim [Na‘īm] and Al Bu Shamis [Āl Bū Shāmis] tribes. Also discussed is the possibility of the Shaikh of Abu Dhabi (Shaikh Shakhbūt bin Sulṭān bin Zāyid Āl Nahyān) providing access to Baraimi [Al Buraymī ] now that a concession has been signed for his territory; and other work that might be undertaken in both Muscat and Abu Dhabi. This survey work was ultimately postponed owing to concerns over access to, and protection whilst in the relevant territory, as well as the outbreak of War in Europe.Later correspondence discusses the decision to postpone geological surveying owing to wartime conditions, and consideration of a resumption of work in 1945 with proposals for a small geological survey party working in the Baraimi and Jebel Hafit [Jabal Ḩafīt] area’s with geophysical surveys commencing in 1946. Included in the file are reports from a geologist for Petroleum Concessions Limited, Thomas Fulton Williamson, which discuss the potential problems of supplies, labour, transport, and accommodation that would have to be overcome.Other matters discussed in the volume include:news of the death of Shaikh Muhammad bin Sultan An-Nu’aimi [Sheikh Muḥammad bin Sulṭān Al-Nu`aimī] of Dhank who had been succeeded by his brother Shaikh Saqr bin Sultan [Sheikh Saqr bin Sulṭān Al-Nu`aimī] of Baraimi;the need to attempt to define the boundaries of the various Trucial Shaikh’s territories and proposing that initially each Shaikh be asked to state what they considered to be under their control so that areas of joint or disputed ownership could be identified;a meeting in Sharjah with the Political Agent at Bahrain, Shaikh Mohammed bin Saqr al-Jawassim [Sheikh Muḥammad bin Saqr Āl Qasimī] brother of the Shaikh of Sharjah, Shaikh Saqr bin Sultan of the Naim at Dhank, Shaikh Rashid bin Hamad [Rāshid Bin Ḥumaid] of Al Bu Shamis at Baraimi) and Shaikh Mohammed bin Ali bin Huweidin of the Beni Qitab (also written as Beni Chittab). That this was the first time in ten years that the Chief of the Beni Qitab had been persuaded to come to Sharjah and was considered a positive sign that could benefit Petroleum Concessions Limited in gaining access to territory under the Beni Qitab’s control;concerns in 1939 over Petroleum Concessions Limited’s intentions with regard to their concessions in the Persian Gulf and whether they actually intended exploiting them or had merely acquired them to prevent other companies from doing so.
Description
The volume consists of the following Foreign Office document: 19127, marked 'For Official Use only'.The volume is divided into sections containing transcripts of treaties and engagements relating to Bahrain; Kuwait; Qatar; Trucial States; Muscat; and miscellaneous. The earliest treaties recorded date from 1820.
Description
Genre/Subject MatterView of a group of Kuwaiti men on the shore at Koweit [Kuwait], greeting Lord Curzon’s party as they land. A carriage drawn by two horses stands waiting right of centre. In the background the waters of the Persian Gulf and some small boats are visible.InscriptionsInk, below image: 'A Few Words of Welcome, Koweit.'Pencil, lower right, alongside image: ‘23’
Description
A General Sketch of the History of Persiaby Clements R Markham.Publication Details: London : Longmans, Green, and Co., 1874 Printed by Spottiswoode and Co., New-Street Square and Parliament StreetPhysical Description: Octavo. Contains one map.
Description
A History of Persia from the beginning of the ninteenth century to the year 1859 with a review of the principal events that led to the establishment of the Kajar Dynastyby Robert Grant Wilson.Publication Details: London: Smith, Elder and Co., 65, Cornhill.Physical Description: initial Roman numeral pagination (i-xii); 8º.
Description
A Journey from Bengal to England, through the Northern part of India, Kashmire, Afghanistan, and Persia, and into Russia, by the Caspian-Sea. By George Forster. In the Civil Service of the Honourable the East-India Company in Two Volumes. Vol. I.Publication details: printed for R Faulder, New Bond-Street, London. 1798.Physical Description: Quarto. Contains a folded map.
Description
A Journey from Bengal to England, through the Northern part of India, Kashmire, Afghanistan, and Persia, and into Russia, by the Caspian-Sea. By George Forster. In the Civil Service of the Honourable the East-India Company in Two Volumes. Vol. II.Publication details: printed for R Faulder, New Bond-Street, London. 1798.Physical Description: Quarto.
Description
A Journey from India to England, through Persia, Georgia, Russia, Poland, and Prussia, in the year 1817, by Lieut. Col. John Johnson.Publication details: Printed by A Strahan, Printers-Street, for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, Paternoster-Row, London, 1818.Physical description: Leaves of plates (some colour), with illustrations (some colour).
Description
A Journey through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor, to Constantinople, in the years 1808 and 1809, in which is included some account of the proceedings of his Majesty's Mission, under Sir Harford Jones, Bart., to the Court of the King of Persia. With twenty-five engravings from the designs of the author; a plate of inscriptions; and three maps.Publication Details: London : Longman, 1812.Physical Description: xvi. 438 p. ; 4º.
Description
This volume consists of a publication regarding Turanism and the Pan-Turanianism movement that was produced by the Naval Staff's Intelligence Department.The publication is divided up into the following sub-headings:introductionthe Finno-Ugrian divisionthe Samoyed divisionthe Tungus divisionthe Mongol divisionthe Turkish divisionappendix A - A German's Two Years Journeyappendix B - The Disturbances in SemirechieindexThe volume contains a map in a pouch at its rear entitled 'Map of Eurasia showing the distribution of Turanian Peoples'.
Description
Imprint:London, published by John Murray, Albermarle Street. Lithographed by Stanfords Geog. Estab.Distinctive Features:Relief shown by hachures.Shows the route of the author by red line.The verso of the folio contains the title 'Vamberry's map of Central Asia' written in Lewis Pelly's handwriting in pencil.